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Rito Adonhiramita

The Adonhiramite Rite




According to a historical current strongly adopted in our Sublime Institution and, particularly of the Adonhiramite Rite, Freemasonry originated in the ancient initiation fraternities of Egypt, from which it received the symbolic tradition that, with the greatest care, keeps intact, in order to be able to transmit her to her Initiates.

According to history, there was a philosophical order in the East called "Hormuz / Hormuz Society" founded by Hormuz, Priest and Seraph of Alexandria, also known as the Sage of Memphis, converted by Saint Mark around 43 AD After converting his adherents, modified the doctrine of the Egyptians according to the principles of Christianity. They professed a mixture of Egyptian and Christian doctrines, they called themselves " Sage of the Light ", full of allegories and mysteries, carrying an emblem, a Red Cross. The Sages of Light would be the only repositories of Egyptian wisdom, purified by Christianity, came together in a school called " From the Science of Solomon " of Essene-Jewish origin, from where, perhaps, Freemasonry would arise.

Around 1187-1188, after Saladin's taking of Jerusalem, disciples of that ancient school founded the Order of the Knights of the East in Europe, where they taught the high sciences. Based on literary currents, its traces are found in 1196. They say that Raymond Lulle belonged to her and was the one who initiated the son of Henry III, king of England.

The Adonhiramite Rite was thus created in 1738, with its definitive publication in 1744 ( Catéchisme des Francs-Masons ) by Louis Antoine Travenol, who used the pseudonym (historical name) of Abbot Leonard Gabanon, being reformed by Louis Theodore Henri Tschoudy (Baron of Tschoudy), 1752-1769 with the active participation of Jean Baptiste Thomas Pirlet; and a second reform by Louis Guillemain Saint-Victor, 1782-1785; the Adonhiramite Rite is a Masonic system whose history is almost impossible to make due to the lack of historical documents. The history of kings and peoples, their customs and their actions, traces the great evolutions of Humanity, beliefs and the general situation. In the same way that the ancient Egyptian philosophers, to subtract their secrets and mysteries from the profane eyes, taught their teaching through symbols and allegories, the Masonic Order, continuing that tradition, encloses its doctrine and philosophy in symbols and allegories, by which they hide their truths to the profane world, only revealing them to those who enter their temples.



He was born in Paris in 1698, son of Professor Louis Travenol and Mary Anne Travenol. At the sound of the piano of a dance teacher, his father learned the rudiments of the violin and also, with Clérambault and Senaillé, he developed the art of music, in addition to the mastery of cartoonism. Passing away in Paris in 1783. Alias ​​(historical name): Abbot Leonard Gabanon.

He had to earn a living from an early age, although it had been known for some time before 1735 that he was employed as the first master of violin and music for the King of Poland at the court of Lorraine in Lunéville. In 1739, he joined the Paris Opera Orchestra. Presenting himself of a strong and controversial character, with a certain literary talent, he stood out as a pamphleteer. In literary art, he left his mark on the history of France, defending French music and violently fighting Voltaire, Rousseau and Mondonville, waging fierce legal disputes.

As a result of the reprint of Travenol, in 1746, of a pamphlet by Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, directed against Voltaire and caused by the election of the latter to the French Academy of Music, Voltaire fought a long legal battle against Travenol, causing an incident against his father, Prof. Travenol, aged 80 years old, being mistakenly arrested in place of his son. After the incident, Travenol and his father filed a lawsuit in the courts against Voltaire, who was prosecuted and sentenced to indemnify them. In 1753, he participated in the famous Querelle des Bouffons. As a defender of French music he published two pamphlets against Rousseau (defender of Italian music) getting involved in another legal dispute.

With health problems, Travenol was removed from the opera on April 1, 1758, provoking another series of recriminatory publications, one of which, directed mainly to Mondonville, who would be one of the directors of the Spiritual Concert.

Travenol's controversial literary production overshadowed his activity as an interpreter and composer, although he was more than competent in both spheres. He conducted both music and also composed for his Opera, in addition to organizing the symphony orchestra on March 31, 1750, at the Grand Spiritual Concert in Paris.


Music - Opera:

• "La raie" (Paris, 1728)

• Les petits maisons, (Paris 1732)

• Vous riez de notre délire, vaudeville (Foire St Germain, 1732)

• La Fierté vaincue par l'Amour, cantate à voix seule et simphonie suivie d'un petit divertissement (Paris, 1735)

• Premier free of 6 sonates to violin seoul with the basse continue (Paris, 1739)

• Première suite of symphonies for violons, flutes, hautbois (Paris, version 1750)


• Catechism of Francs-Masons: Précédé d'un Abrégé de l'Histoire d'Adoniram, Architecte du Temple de Salomon - (Israel and Paris, 1738-1744)

• Arrest du conseil d'état d'Apollon (Paris, 1753)

• with J.-B. Durey de Noinville: Histoire du théâtre de l'Académie royale de musique en France (Paris, 2/1757 / R)

• La galerie de l'Académie royale de musique (Paris, 1754)

• Require in verse an auteur de l'Opéra, au prévôt des marchands (Paris, 1758)

• Les entrepreneurs entrepris, or Complainte d'un musicien opprimé par ces camarades (Paris, 1758)

• with L. Mannori: Mémoire pour le sieur Travenol, ex-musicien du roi de Pologne… contre le sieur Mondonville, ex-musicien du roi, le sieur Caperan, ex-musicien de l'Opéra, et la Dame Royer, tous trois entrepreneurs et directeurs du Concert Spirituel (Paris, 1758)

• Oeuvres mêlées du sieur, listen in verse and in prose, according to the famous remarks… on the J.-J. Rousseau contre la musique françoise (Amsterdam, 1775)

• Académie Royale - Histoire du théâtre de l'Académie royale de musique en France depuis son établissement jusqu'à présent - Jacques-Bernard Durey de Noinville - Louis-Antoine Travenol - Duchesne - 1757



Metz was born on August 21, 1727. Son of Claude Henry Tschoudy and Louise Christine Roaut de Assy. Lawyer, military officer in the Royal Regiment of Switzerland of Prince Raimondo di Sangro, parliamentary advisor to Metz, enthusiastic Mason, philosopher and writer. He died on May 28, 1769, in Paris, at the age of 42. He used the pseudonym (historical name): Knight of Lussy.

He decided to reside in Italy with his uncle in 1751, being initiated in Freemasonry in a Neapolitan Lodge of which he was Venerable Master. In The Hague, he launched two pamphlets in response to the Papal Bull published by Pope Benedict XIV, on May 18, 1751, “Excommunication of Freemasons”. Despite his pseudonym, Tschoudy was discovered and imprisoned in Naples. His uncle, General Marshal, makes him escape to Holland where he went into exile. During his travels, he assumed the presidency of a store in The Hague, being Grand Master of the Shops of the Seven Provinces. Residing in Russia he took over the Venerance of a store in St. Petersburg. In 1755, he held the position of adviser to Empress Elisabeth of Russia.

Returning to France, he became an advisor in the Parliament of Metz and Venerable Master of his former Lodge, affiliating in 1762 with the Knights of the Council of the East. Author of the rituals of the "Sovereign Council of Princes Freemasons Rosa-Cruzes. He believed and affirms in his works that Freemasonry had its origin in Ancient Egypt. Between 1762-1765 he associated himself with Jean Baptiste Pirlet and rewrote all the rituals of the Council of Knights from the East, introducing to the rituals the Flaming Star.

In 1766, he wrote his famous book L'Etoile Flamboyante, which has nothing to do with the Adonhiramite Rite. He also wrote a complete system of alchemical degrees with notable instructions for the Great Work, in some of which, such as "Knight of the Iris", "Knight of the Phoenix" or "Commander of the Stars", found in the autos degrees of the Memphis and Memphis-Misraim rites. In the last years of his life, he split between Metz and Paris, being venerable of the Metz "Saint Etienne" Lodge, president of the Provincial Lodge of the Three Bishops, Head of the College of Saint Andrew of Scotland and Commander of the Chapter of the Knights of Palestine. Created the rituals of the Rite Écossois of Saint-André d'Écosse, used in all systems

but Masonic.


  • Thérèse philosophe or Mémoires pour serve à l'histoire du P. Dir rag (Girard) et de mademoiselle Eradice (Cadière) - (1748)

  • Etrenne au pape, or Les Francs-Masons Vangés, responds to the bulge d'excommunication lancée par le pape Benoît XIV - (1752)

  • Le Philosophe au Parnasse françois or Le moraliste enjoué, lettres du chev. de L ** and Mr. de M - (1754)

  • Rituel des grades alchimiques du baron Tschoudy - (1762)

  • L'Etoile flamboyante ou la Société des Francs-Masons - (1766)

  • Écossois of Saint-André d'Écosse. De l'art royal de la Franç-maçonnerie et le but direct, essentiel - (1769)


Wallonia, Belgium, was born on June 27, 1717. Son of Jean Hubert Pirlet and Anne Marie Spinsmaille . Writer, theologian, master-tailor and merchant of fine fabrics. He contracted nuptials with Marie Anne Lemineur, on November 29, 1744, having 11 children with her. He lived all his life on Rue d'Orléans-Saint Honoré, near the Hotel d'Aligre, Paris. Pirlet died in Paris, on January 25, 1791, at the age of 73.

In Freemasonry he was a figure of great importance and value for the Scottish system, unfortunately, today forgotten by modern Scouting. He created the system of autos grades in 1757-1758, called the Council of Emperors of the East and the West, or 25 degrees of Perfection of the Great and Sovereign Scottish Lodge of St. John of Jerusalem.

For political reasons, disagreeing with the decisions of the Council in 1761, he separated himself from the auto body and founded on July 22, 1762, a new auto body, called the Council of the Knights of the East, bringing to his direction, the Baron of Tschoudy , which decides to revise and adjust all the rituals of the self council , in addition to contributing to the creation of the Grade of the Cavaleiros de Santo André. It introduces to the system, the Rutilating or Flamejante star and Capitulo Rosa-Cruz not yet existing in any Masonic body of that time . There were several attempts by Pirlet to merge the Grand Lodges with the Council of Emperors, only to be successful on August 14, 1766.

Pirlet created in addition to the Rite of Perfect, the Scottish Trinitarian system between 1752-1753, being only published on December 3, 1765, after separating from Tschoudy, founding the first Trinitarian store in Paris, being his venerable master.


  • l'Ordre Écossais des Trinitaires (1752-1753)


He was born in Paris, around 1735. Little is known about his life, however, it can be said that his main work "Recueil Précieux de l´Maçonnerie Adonhiramite" earned him fame. This work was compiled from the work of Leonard Gabanon and the reform of Baron de Tschoudy. It is noteworthy that the work was only published after the death of Baron de Tshoudy and Louis Travenol. It is worth remembering that Tschoudy in life asked that the Masonic works he created or reformed under profane eyes were never published, unfortunately, Saint-Victor, like so many others, ignored him.

Count Saint-Gelaire introduced in France in 1757 the Order of the Knights Noaquita or Prussians along the lines of the Chapter of Clemont, waged a legal battle against San-Victor for plagiarizing his work, without changing anything, introducing in the Recueil Précieux de la Maçonnerie Adonhiramite as last degree (13th degree) of his work . It would also have plagiarized the Rite of Adoption, or Rite for Ladies.


  • L'Adoption or the Freemason des Dames, (1779-1786)

  • Recueil Précieux de la Maçonnerie Adonhiramite, (1781-1787)

  • Histoire Critique des Mystères de l'Antiquité, (1788)


Soon after the Grand Orient of France created a commission of high degrees in 1773 (as it had already happened in England), Chapters or Capitular Lodges began to appear in that country in order to manage the so-called philosophical degrees, subsequent to the degree of Master Mason. It was proposed in this Commission (by Alexandre Louis Roettiers de Montaleau) a study on all the existing degrees and practiced in France, seeking to create an orderly system that contemplated all Masonic philosophy.

Thus, in this effervescence of events typical of the time, in the year 1781, Louis Guillemain de Saint-Victor publishes the “Recueil Précieux de la Maçonnerie Adonhiramite” (1st Ed. - A Philadélphie / Philarethe), translated into Portuguese as “Precious Collection of Freemasonry Adonhiramite ”, with the first 4 degrees: a compendium describing the Degrees of Apprentice, Companion, Master Mason and a fourth Degree as a continuation, called Perfect Master, thus completing the symbolism at the time and, in fact, synthesizing all French side of that time, placing Adonhiram as the great name of the Masonic Legend.

In 1785 the Grand General Chapter of France delivered its work on "Synthesis of the French High Degrees". The following year, in 1786, Louis Guillermain de Saint-Victor publishes the second edition of his Precious Collection. It was, therefore, 6 years after the first edition, as he himself informs in the text of the presentation of this new publication.

And in this second edition he presents the ritual with 12 Degrees (being the Grau Rosa Cruz as the "nec plus ultra”, followed by a text inserted at the end of this new edition, stating that it is simply a Masonic curiosity and no more a specific degree.

Guillemain de Saint-Victor stated that the Grade called, Noaquita or Prussian Knight would have no connection with the previous series of twelve degrees presented by him, making it clear that it would only be by way of complement and Masonic curiosity that he brought to his second volume of Precious Compilation, a translation from German, by M. de Bérage. In fact, he published (in the Journal de Trévoux in 1785) the German translation of the work on the Grau Noachita or Prussian Knight.

Louis Guillemain de Saint-Victor's work had an extremely positive repercussion to the point that after the launch of the first edition and the same year that the second edition of the Precious Compilation of Masonry Adonhiramite was already being published in French abroad, specifically in Philadelphia, USA .

This work became a canonical reference of the Adonhiramite Rite and with it the rite itself reached wide dissemination and expansion in Europe, even becoming the main Rite of the Great Lusitanian East, being exported to its colonies in Africa, Asia and the New World (Brazil ). In France, it became, together with the structure proposed by the Grand General Chapter, the standard of "Orthodoxy of Freemasonry".


Some authors believe in the possibility of the stores "Reunion" (1801) and "Distintiva" (1812), having worked at the Rite Adonhiramita due to the exchange of Portuguese and French travelers of the time in the city of Rio de Janeiro, unfortunately, without documentary evidence. It can be said that the rite was officially introduced in Brazil in November 1815, with the foundation of Loja Comércio e Arte, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and its work was interrupted on March 30, 1818, when the Emperor D. João VI, issued a Royal Permit, "Lesa Majestade " forcing secret societies, in any form and denomination in the Portuguese Portuguese territory, to cease their activities.

The Loja Comercio e Arte resumed its activities on June 24, 1821. Precisely on June 17, 1822, the Loja Maçônica Comércio e Artes, following the model of Bahia, was divided into three Shops: “Loja Maçônica Comércio e Artes na Idade do Ouro ”; “Union and Tranquility Masonic Lodge; “Nictheroy's Masonic Lodge Esperança”; thus the second great orient called "GRANDE ORIENTE BRAZILEIRO" (BRASILIAN OR BRAZILIAN) was formed, having its headquarters installed in Rua do Conde, of ephemeral duration.

The first rituals printed in Brazil were translated from the Precious Compilation of Freemasonry Adonhiramita in the year 1833, and its printing ratified and authorized in 1836. The first edition was printed by Typographia Astral, at Rua Beco dos Quarteis, 21, Rio de Janeiro.


With the foundation of the Great Eastern Brazil on the aegis of the Adonhiramite Rite, a mixed obedience was born (it was very common at that time the symbolic power to govern the philosophical degrees), that is, it worked and managed, under a single command, both the philosophical degrees and symbolic degrees. The Adonhiramite Rite, therefore, suffered a certain abandonment in the Great East of Brazil, during this period, only revitalizing itself in 1833, when the “Wisdom and Beneficence” Store was founded, in Niterói, (slaughtered columns in 1850) . In 1839, the 2nd store called “Firmeza e União” store appeared, in the same year in which the Grande Oriente do Brasil instituted the Great College of Blue Rites, including the Adonhiramite Rite.

In 1854, with the regular incorporation of the Old and Accepted Scottish Rite into the Lavradio GOB, the “Grande Colégio dos Ritos” underwent a transformation. Given that officially the REAA would be incorporated into GOB and required a separate government, it could not be simply in conjunction with “Grande Colégio de Ritos” or merged as it was before. Therefore, in 1855, the “Sublime Grand Chapter of Blue Rites” (Moderno and Adonhiramita) was created , which would collaterally compose the Supreme Council of the REAA, the Head Chefs of the Rites. The "Sublime Grand Chapter of Blue Rites" had a short existence. In 1863, less than ten years after its creation, there was a dissent led by Joaquim Saldanha Marinho, where the “Grande Oriente do Brasil do Vale dos Benededitinos” was created. The founding Stores were: Charity, Commerce, July 18th, Estrelado Rio, Impartiality, Philanthropy and Order and Silence.


In 1865, the new GOB of Vale dos Beneditinos was recognized by the Grand Orient of France and the Grand Orient Lusitano as the only legal and legitimate power for the Brazilian Empire. From that moment on, Brazilian Freemasonry grew and flourished throughout the Court. Ten years after the split, on June 21, 1870, Dr. Joaquim Saldanha Marinho resolves to propose to the Viscount of Rio Branco (Grand Master of the Grande Oriente do Lavradio) to merge Brazilian Freemasonry into a single large family for the Court of Brazil. after a year of the proposal, they agreed to the terms of the vote for the merger. The vote took place in two sessions as follows: the first, on May 29, 1872; the second, on June 4, 1872; being approved by Decree 01, May 29, 1872 and Decree 02, June 4, 1872. The Provisional Grand Master appointed to manage the new body was Dr. Antônio Felix Martins (Barão de São Félix).


In September of that year was held the elections for the position of Grand Master, being winner, Dr. Joaquim Saldanha Marinho, with 222 votes against 190. The valid Visconde do Rio Branco being defeated at the polls and unhappy with the result declared the merger of the two great orientations null through Decree nº 13, of September 16, 1872 (following the same precepts of José Bonifácio , to hold power for himself). From the edition of the aforementioned decree, the two powers returned, that is, the Grand Orient of Brazil from Vale dos Benedictinos and the Grand Orient of Brazil from Vale do Lavradio. On this occasion, there were three distinct Masonic powers: GOB-L - Grande Oriente do Brasil do Vale do Lavradio; GOB-B - Grande Oriente do Brasil do Vale dos Benededitinos; GOUB - Great Eastern United of Brazil. In addition to the three powers mentioned, there was also a fourth Masonic power called Grande Oriente Brasileiro , also known as Grande Oriente do Passeio - GOP (which was asleep from 1864-1867).

In 1874, Grande Oriente do Brasil do Vale dos Benededitinos ceased its activities and was permanently extinguished. Its stores are affiliated with GOUB, and a small part with GOB-L, the rest in the Grande Oriente do Passeio.

The Greater Middle Kingdom Brazil Adonhiramita the Rite was very successful, the number of Rite Stores supplanted those of the GOB-L (five against two stores). Thus, the new power (result of the merger of 1872), that is, GOUB created the “Great Chapter of the Knights Noaquitas” through Articles 31 and 44, Par. 3, and its Constitution promulgated through Decree No. 4, of September 23, 1872. Session No. 1, took place on October 3, 1872, when the first election was held, with its Grand Officers sworn in on the 9th November 1872, (session No. 2). Its first Grand Master was the Viscount of Ponte Ferreira (Dr. João Fernandes Tavares - Rio de Janeiro, December 27, 1795 - Rio de Janeiro, July 10, 1874).

In Lavradio's GOB there were two stores: “Firmeza e União II” (1854), “Aliança” (1869), to compete with Grande Oriente Unido do Brasil was founded in 1872, a third store, called Loja “Redenção”, thus made up three symbolic stores. With these stores, GOB created by Decree nº 21, of April 2, 1873, a namesake (copy) , with the same social denomination, that is, “Great Chapter of the Knights Noaquitas”. Her appointed Grand Master was Dr. Joaquim José da Cunha Guimaraes.

Three years after the death of Visconde do Rio Branco (José Maria da Silva Paranhos: Salvador, March 16, 1819 - Rio de Janeiro, November 1, 1880), when he completed ten years of the 1872 merger attempt, Dr. Joaquim Saldanha Marinho, showing all his love for Freemasonry, using all the means for their unification, making the merger of the two great orientations into one body on December 21, 1882, starting in January 1883, and shaking as only a great orient (extinction of the Great East of Brazil from Vale do Lavradio and the Great United Kingdom of Brazil), simply called "Grande Oriente do Brasil - GOB" . With the merger, Adonhiramite Masonry solidifies into a single Brazilian family. In 1883, the new GOB had the following Adonhiramite stores:

Aurora, Belem, PA

Discretion, RJ

Fraternidade Alagoana, Maceió , AL

Liberty and Fraternity, RJ

Modestia, Morretes, RS

Mystery , RJ

Perfect Friendship Alagoana, Maceió , AL

Segredo, RJ

União e Fidelidade, Santarém, PA

Liberty, RJ

Firmness and Union II, MA

Aliança, RJ

Redencao, RJ

Asylum of Prudência, RJ

Frank-Hiramita, RJ

Description, RJ

Alliance and Surveillance of Niteroy, RJ

Luiz de Camões, RJ


In 1893, a group of lodges led by Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada III, dissatisfied with the result of the merger of the two great orientations, desiring independence and autonomy from São Paulo Freemasonry, decided to make a new split, creating on May 28, 1893, a new Masonic body, autonomous, independent and progressive, simply called: Grand Orient of the State of São Paulo and its Supreme Council ( autonomous , 1993-1921) . There were several stores that idealized the foundation of the new Masonic corporation, among them the newspapers of the time highlight: Loja América, Loja Harmonia e Caridade, Loja Itália, Loja Roma, Loja Sete de Setembro, Loja União Paulista and Loja Vinte de Setembro . Then, other stores were founded and affiliated with the new São Paulo Masonic body. He was hailed as the first Grand Master to head the new institution, Dr. Martins Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada.

The Grand Orient of São Paulo, was the first Brazilian Masonic organization to comply with the terms of the Government Decree of September 10, 1893, registering its statutes, as stated in the Official Gazette of the State of São Paulo, of October 9, 1894.

In 1897, as the newspapers of the time reported , there was an attempt to unify with GOB with GOSP ( autonomous, 1893-1921 ), but without success. In the same year, Lojas America and Italy broke away from São Paulo's Grande Oriente and became independent . GOSP founded a new Independent Supreme Council, federated with the Italian Supreme Council based in Naples (its stores practiced the REAA), weakening the Adonhiramite Rite. In 1921, GOSP was incorporated into GOB, being installed as a state power.

In addition to the aforementioned spin-off, there was also the 1927 spin-off (foundation of the Grandes Lojas Brasileiras) and the 1948 spin-off (foundation of the Grande Oriente Oriente and its Sovereign Supreme Council, São Paulo and the Grande Oriente of Tiradentes and its Supreme Council, Minas Gerais). At this time, the Rite Adonhiramita stores that joined the new powers migrated to the Old and Accepted Scottish Rite - REAA.


In 1953, the "Great Chapter of the Noaquite Knights" would be called " Very Powerful and Sublime Great Chapter of the Noaquite Knights for Brazil ".

On April 15, 1968, the Grand Master of the GOB, Álvaro Palmeira, and the President of the “Very Powerful and Sublime Great Chapter of the Noaquite Knights for Brazil”, Josué Mendes, signed a Treaty of Alliance and Friendship.

In 1973, there was a great “turnaround” in the Adonhiramite Rite, in this year, thirteen Great State Orients were disconnected from the Central Power of GOB, meaning a catastrophic loss. Most of its stores practicing the Adonhiramite Rite who founded or migrated to the autonomous powers started to practice the Scottish Rite.

In order to recover the Adonhiramite Rite within the GOB and within the "Very Powerful and Sublime Great Chapter of the Noaquite Knights to Brazil" it was necessary to attract Freemasons from other rites. In 1973, under the command of Brother Aylton Menezes, the “Very Powerful and Sublime Great Chapter of the Noaquite Knights for Brazil” changes its name to “ Excellent Council of Adonhiramite Masonry ” (ECMA). There was still a complete reformulation of the Rite to make it more attractive to a Masonic population mainly from the REAA, that is, used to a 33 Degree system and that would not be attracted by a rite with only 13 degrees.

On June 2, 1973, the year that celebrated the centenary of the creation of the Great Chapter of Gentlemen Noachitas by the Grand Orient of Brazil , an administrative reform took place that transformed it into the Excellent Council of Freemasonry Adonhiramita, going from then to 33 degrees . Within 9 years, that is, in 1982, the Adonhiramite Rite within GOB and ECMA was completely transformed: it introduced 33 degrees; censorship ceremonial; ceremonial of lights; that is, a strong occult influence and a tendency to continuous modifications.

Currently, the Adonhiramite Rite is practiced in Brazil by all regular and legitimate powers, in Portugal , Uruguay and France.

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